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What are the main functions of the large span steel structure?

Number of visits: Date:2018-11-06
Steel is the major material for long-span structures. Bending structures originally developed for bridges, such as plate girders and trusses, are used in long-span buildings. Plate girders are welded from steel plates to make I beams that are deeper than the standard rolled shapes and that can span up to 60 metres (200 feet); however, they are not very efficient in their use of material. Trusses are hollowed-out beams in which the stresses are channeled into slender linear members made of rolled shapes that are joined by welding or bolting into stable triangular configurations. The members of trusses act either in pure compression or pure tension: in the top and bottom horizontal members the forces are greatest at the centre of the span, and in the verticals and diagonals they are greatest at the supports. Trusses are highly efficient in bending and have been made up to 190 metres (623 feet) in span. Two-way grids can be made of either plate girders or trusses to span square spaces up to 91 metres (300 feet) in size; these two-way structures are more efficient but more expensive to build.
Structural systems for long-span buildings can be classified into two groups: those subject to bending, which have both tensile and compressive forces, and funicular structures, which experience either pure tension or pure compression. Since bridges are a common type of long-span structure, there has been an interplay of development between bridges and long-span buildings. Bending structures include the girder, the two-way grid, the truss, the two-way truss, and the space truss. They have varying optimum depth-to-span ratios ranging from 1 : 5 to 1 : 15 for the one-way truss to 1 : 35 to 1 : 40 for the space truss. The funicular structures include the parabolic arch, tunnel vault, and dome, which act in pure compression and which have a rise-to-span ratio of 1 : 10 to 1 : 2, and the cable-stayed roof, the bicycle wheel, and warped tension surfaces, which act in pure tension. Within these general forms of long-span structure, the materials used and labour required for assembly are an important constraint along with other economic factors.

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